|More Information About Creatine|
|CREATINE is better than doping!|
This statement is intentionally provocative and
perhaps incorrectly worded. Creatine is not actually a doping product.
Neither will it ever be classified as such. But if you equate performance
boosting food additives with doping then this statement is correct. THE
EFFECT OF CREATINE IS QUITE CLEARLY TO PRODUCE A BOOST IN PERFORMANCE.
What is Creatine and how does it work?
Creatine is a water-soluble,
totally natural substance which the body itself produces. Creatine is also a
derivative (chemical compound) of the amino acid Glycin. Amino acids are a
group of organic compounds amongst which are 23 components of particular importance
(Glycin is one of them) in that they function as components of
the chains used to create proteins.
Creatine in itself is ineffective. An effect is produced
when the creatine (which has to be taken in its monohydrate form, otherwise the
creatine cannot pass through the cell walls in the muscle cells) is converted into phosphocreatine, or creatine phosphate, as it is
also called, in the muscle itself.
Creatine phosphate is a prerequisite for all muscle work. The energy which generates all muscle work comes from ADP (adenosine diphosphate) created when ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is broken down. Creatine phosphate is the
prime source of ATP production. The process whereby ADP produced from
ATP and, in turn, from creatine phosphate is burnt up,
takes place in the body at lightning speed. The smaller the amount of creatine phosphate there is in the
body, the more ADP has to be produced by breaking
down muscle glycogen into lactic acid.
Since the production of ADP in this process takes
longer, the energy supply to the muscles is reduced.
resulting: in a reduction in muscle performance.
If, on the other hand, the amount of creatine Phosphate in the body is increased by an intake of creatine
monohvdrate, an immediate improvement in muscle
action capacity is experienced (in this respect it could
be said that creatine indirectly delays production of
the lactic acid which signals that the muscles have
reached the limit of their capacity). Research scientists,
such as Professor Eric Hultman, have demonstrated in
scientific experiments that the body's crea
tine phosphate level can be
increased from between 20
and 50% by taking creatine
Where is creatine found?
Creatine is produced naturally in the liver, the kidneys and the pancreas.
Human beings have, on
average, approximately 120
mmol of creatine per kilo
of body weight, but this
level may vary considerably from person to person.
Creatine is found primarily
in the muscles around the
skeleton, and high levels of
creatine are also found in
the heart muscles, nerve
cells and sperm.
The required daily dosage
is a minimum of 2 grams,
the most common source of
creatine being all types of
meat, fish and, amongst
other things, mountain
Who can benefit from creatine?
Creatine can benefit all of
us because we all work
with our muscles all the
However, athletes, in particular, are perhaps the ones
who would derive the greatest benefit from a creatine
boost, as they are the ones
aiming for the best possible
performance. It has, in particular, been demonstrated that
athletes who expend energy in short intensive bursts benefit greatly from
creatine. Ice hockey, football, handball, sprinting up
to 1000 m and all types of
and mountaineering, etc,
are typical examples of
this. But it is also quite
likely that athletes in typical fitness sports would
benefit from extra amounts
of creatine. There is also
everything to suggest that it
would have a beneficial
effect on animals, such as
horses in equestrian sports,
because their muscles also
contain creatine phosphate.
Is it possible to take an overdose of creatine?
How much of it is one
supposed to take?
It is impossible under normal circumstances to take
an overdose of creatine.
Our daily requirement is
approximately two grams.
Up to 30 grams per day has
been taken in experiments
with no resulting side
effects. In fact, the body filters out what it does not
need through urine. A two-gram-a-day supplement
may well seem enough for
the average person, while
athletes can take up to 20
grams a day prior to periods of intensive training or
Do we get enough creatine in our normal diet?
The average level of creatine is
approximately 120 mmol per kilo of body weight.
Tests carried out at the
Karolinska Institute and at
Hospital under the direction of Professors Eric
Hultman and Bjorn Ekblom
show that the creatine
phosphate level may be
increased to between 160
and 170 mmol per kilo of
The tests also show that it
is not possible to raise the
level any higher than this,
even when doses are increased even further. The normal level of creatine, by
analogy with these facts,
thus seems to be approximately 160 mmol, which
again shows that we do not
get an adequate amount of
creatine through our normal diet.
Why isn't creatine classified as doping?
One would think that creatine should be classified as
doping since the preparation so obviously boosts
athletic performance. All
other similar performance-
boosting substances are
classified as doping, but
there are no risks with creatine owing to the fact that
creatine is a natural substance found in the body.
Apart from that, it is impossible to gauge whether or
not a person has taken an
additional dose of creatine,
because creatine levels
vary from person to person.
Most experts in the international sports federations,
which Arne Ljungquist:
President of International Amateur
doping commission, is one
are also clearly against
THE RESEARCH BEHIND CREATINE
Eric Hultman, professor
of clinical chemistry
the Karolinska Institute
in Stockholm, has
20 years carrying
research on creatine
Prof. Hultman's special area of research has been
muscle diseases, and
has been through this research that creatine's
special properties have
Prof. Hultman has conducted a series of scientific studies in cooperation with a number of other well known research scientists from Sweden and Britain which clearly demonstrate the positive effects of creatine. Eric Hultman's theories are based on the fact that creatine phosphate is the prime source of energy in the first 30 seconds of muscle action. So several years ago he and his fellow scientists began investigating whether or not it was possible to increase the level of creatine in the muscles and, if so, whether or not this
would produce any effect.
What was revolutionary
about Prof. Hultman's research was the fact that it was
possible to increase the
amount of creatine with the
result that greater efficiency in muscle action was
achieved. These studies
have been published in
such reputable journals as
"Clinical Science" and
"The Scandinavian Journal
of Medicine and Science in
Sports". Further studies,
including those under the
direction of Prof. B.
Ekblom of the Karolinska
Institute, are under way.
The most important effects of creatine
* Creatine increases performance by supplying muscles with a higher level of
creatine phosphate. By
increasing the level of creatine phosphate the following effects are achieved:
* A delay in the lactic acid souring of the muscles,
* Increased training capacity,
* Longer endurance span, i.e. full muscle strength
sustained over a longer
period of time,
* Restoration of full muscle
strength takes place much
faster and increases compared to when no additional
dose of creatine is taken,
particularly when muscles
are subjected to repeated
strain with short periods of
rest (such as in ice hockey,
football, weight lifting).
How should creatine be taken?
Active athletes should start
off with a dose of 4x5
grams of powder per day
for the first 4-5 days. After
that only a 5-gram maintenance dose 2-3 times a
week needs to be taken.
Before important competitions a top-up dose of 20
grams per day can be taken
for a period of three days,
but no more often than
once a month.
Creatine is odorless and
tasteless and dissolves easily in all types of drinks,
including sports drinks.
The "Kreatin" preparation
Creatine Is chemically
manufactured .entirely in
accordance with GMP
Creatine is produced under
the Swedish trade mark
Line" which guarantees
product quality, production
control and price.